A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure that’s done to treat kidney failure. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine just below the rib cage. Each is about the size of a fist. The kidneys filter waste from the blood and remove it from the body through your urine. When your kidneys lose this filtering ability, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body, which can raise your blood pressure and result in kidney failure. Kidney transplant is considered the best treatment option for people facing kidney failure because it can increase your chances of living a longer, healthier life. It is a surgery done to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor.
Donates the kidney
Kidney donors may be either living or deceased.
Living-donor kidney transplant
Because the body can function perfectly well with just one healthy kidney, a family member with two healthy kidneys may choose to donate one of them to you. If your family member’s blood and tissues match your blood and tissues, you can schedule a planned donation. Receiving a kidney from a family member is a good option. It reduces the risk that your body will reject the kidney.
Deceased-donor kidney transplant
A deceased-donor kidney transplant is when a kidney from someone who has recently died is removed with consent of the family or from a donor card and placed in a recipient whose kidneys have failed and no longer function properly and is in need of kidney transplantation.
Tests to determine whether a donated kidney may be suitable for you include:
Blood typing It’s preferable to get a kidney from a donor whose blood type matches or is compatible with your own. During your evaluation for a transplant, you’ll have blood tests to determine your blood type.
Tissue typing If your blood type is compatible, the next step is a tissue typing test called human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. HLA is a group of antigens located on the surface of your white blood cells. Antigens are responsible for your body’s immune response. A good match means it’s less likely that your body will reject the organ.
Crossmatch The third and final matching test involves mixing a small sample of your blood with the donor’s blood in the lab. The test determines whether antibodies in your blood will react against specific antigens in the donor’s blood. A negative crossmatch means they are compatible and your body isn’t as likely to reject the donor kidney. Positive crossmatch kidney transplants also are possible but require additional medical treatment .
The current success rate is around 90%. However, there are various factors that influence the success rate of a kidney transplant.
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