Meningitis Diagnosis and Treatment in Thailand

Meningitis is a rare infection that affects the delicate membranes — called meninges — that cover the brain and spinal cord. This disease could be caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi. 

Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The swelling from meningitis typically triggers symptoms such as headache, fever and a stiff neck. 

Symptoms of viral and bacterial meningitis can be similar in the beginning. However, bacterial meningitis symptoms are usually more severe. The symptoms also vary depending on the age.


Early meningitis symptoms may mimic the flu (influenza). Symptoms may develop over several hours or over a few days.

  • Stiff neck
  • Sudden high fever
  • Confusion or difficulty concentrating
  • Seizures 
  • Sleepiness or difficulty waking
  • Severe headaches that seems different from normal
  • Skin rash 
  • Sensitivity to light
  • No appetite or thirst

Signs in newborns

Newborns and infants may show these signs:

  • High fever
  • Constant crying
  • Poor feeding
  • Excessive sleepiness or irritability
  • A bulge in the soft spot on top of a baby’s head
  • Stiffness in a baby’s body and neck
  • Inactivity or sluggishness


The most common causes of meningitis are viral and bacterial infections. Other causes may include;

  • Cancer
  • Chemical irritation
  • Fungi
  • Drug allergies

Some viral and bacterial meningitis are contagious. They can be transmitted by coughing, sneezing, or close contact. 

Types of Meningitis 

Viral Meningitis – the most common type of meningitis. Viruses in the enterovirus category cause 85% of cases. These are common during the summer and fall, and they include: 

  • Coxsackievirus A
  • Coxsackievirus B
  • Echoviruses

Viruses in the enterovirus category cause about 10-15 millions infections per year, but only a small percentage of people who get infected will develop meningitis. 

Other viruses that can cause meningitis include:

  • West Nile virus
  • Influenza
  • Mumps
  • HIV
  • Measles
  • Herpes viruses
  • Coltivirus, which causes Colorado tick fever

*Viral meningitis typically goes away without treatment. However, some causes do need to be treated. 

Bacterial Meningitis – contagious and caused by infection from certain bacteria. It’s fatal if left untreated. Between 5-40 percent of children and 20-50 percent of adults with this condition die. This is true even with proper treatment. 

The most common types of bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis are:

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae – typically found in the respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal cavity and can cause what’s called “pneumococcal meningitis”
  • Neisseria meningitidis – spread through saliva and other respiratory fluids and causes what’s called “meningococcal meningitis” 
  • Neisseria meningitidis – spread through saliva and other respiratory fluids and causes what’s called “meningococcal meningitis”
  • Haemophilus influenzae – can cause not only meningitis but infection of the blood, inflammation of the windpipe, cellulitis, and infectious arthritis
  • Listeria monocytogenes – foodborne bacteria
  • Staphylococcus aureus – typically found on the skin and in the respiratory tract, and causes “staphylococcal meningitis”

Fungal Meningitis – is a rare type of meningitis. It’s caused by a fungus that infects the body and spreads from the bloodstream to the brain or spinal cord . 

People with a weakened immune system are more likely to develop fungal meningitis. This includes people with cancer or HIV. 

The most common funguses related to fungal meningitis include:

  • Cryptococcus – inhaled from dirt or soil that is contaminated with bird droppings
  • Blastomyces – another type of fungus found in soil, particularly in the Midwestern United States
  • Histoplasma – found in environments that are heavily contaminated with bat and bird droppings, especially in the Midwestern States near the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
  • Coccidioides – found in soil in specific areas of the U.S. Southwest and South and Central America

Parasitic meningitis – less common than viral or bacterial meningitis, and it’s caused by parasites that are found in dirt, feces, and on some animals and food, like snails, raw fish, poultry, or produce.

One type of parasitic meningitis is rarer than others. It’s called eosinophilic meningitis (EM). Three main parasites are responsible for EM. These include:

  • Angiostrongylus cantonensis
  • Baylisascaris procyonis
  • Gnathostoma spinigerum

Parasitic meningitis is not passed from person to person. Instead, these parasites infect an animal or hide out on food that a human then eats. If the parasite or parasite eggs are infectious when they’re ingested, an infection may occur.

Non-infectious meningitis – Non-infectious meningitis is not an infection. Instead, it is a type of meningitis that’s caused by other medical conditions or treatments. These include:

  • lupus
  • a head injury
  • brain surgery
  • cancer
  • certain medications

What We Offer

Meningitis can be life-threatening, depending on the cause. If you’ve been exposed to bacterial meningitis and you develop symptoms, go to an emergency room and let medical staff know you may have meningitis.

We at Almurshidi Medical Tourism will find the best doctors to cater to your needs. We are partnered with a wide network of hospitals and clinics that provide top quality medical experience. 

We provide free medical estimates, make medical appointments, and provide several medical opinions if needed at no cost.

Contact Us

For more information contact us at +66822004040 or via WhatsApp

For Customer Service        +971 503318787