Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of disorders that affect muscle movement and coordination. In many cases, vision, hearing, and sensation are also affected. 

This usually happens before a child is born but  but it can occur at birth or in early infancy.

Many factors can lead to problems with brain development.


  • Infant infections 
  • Traumatic head injury 
  • Lack of oxygen 
  • Gene mutations 
  • Maternal infections 
  • Fetal stroke
  • Bleeding into the brain 


  • Variations in muscle tone, such as being either too stiff or too floppy
  • Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity)
  • Stiff muscles with normal reflexes (rigidity)
  • Lack of balance and muscle coordination (ataxia)
  • Tremors or involuntary movements
  • Slow, writing movements
  • Delays in reaching motor skills milestones
  • Favoring one side of the body
  • Difficulty walking
  • Excessive drooling or problems with swallowing 
  • Difficulty with sucking or eating 
  • Delays in speech development or difficulty speaking 
  • Learning difficulties
  • Difficulty with fine motor skills
  • Seizures 

Types of Cerebral Palsy:

  • Spastic CP – it causes stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes, making it difficult to walk. Symptoms can affect the entire body or just one side of the body. 
  • Dyskinetic CP – people with dyskinetic CP have trouble controlling their body movements.
  • Hypotonic CP – Hypotonic CP causes diminished muscle tone and overly relaxed muscles.
  • Ataxic CP – is characterized by voluntary muscle movements that often appear disorganized, clumsy, or jerky. 
  • Mixed CP – Some people have a combination of symptoms from the different types of CP. This is called mixed CP.


  • Medications – Medications that can lessen muscle tightness might be used to improve functional abilities, treat pain and manage complications related to spasticity or other cerebral palsy symptoms.
  • Therapies – A variety of therapies play an important role in treating cerebral palsy
  • Surgical Procedures – Surgery may be needed to lessen muscle tightness or correct bone abnormalities caused by spasticity.

When to see a doctor?

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