Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of disorders that affect muscle movement and coordination. In many cases, vision, hearing, and sensation are also affected.
This usually happens before a child is born but but it can occur at birth or in early infancy.
Many factors can lead to problems with brain development.
- Infant infections
- Traumatic head injury
- Lack of oxygen
- Gene mutations
- Maternal infections
- Fetal stroke
- Bleeding into the brain
- Variations in muscle tone, such as being either too stiff or too floppy
- Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity)
- Stiff muscles with normal reflexes (rigidity)
- Lack of balance and muscle coordination (ataxia)
- Tremors or involuntary movements
- Slow, writing movements
- Delays in reaching motor skills milestones
- Favoring one side of the body
- Difficulty walking
- Excessive drooling or problems with swallowing
- Difficulty with sucking or eating
- Delays in speech development or difficulty speaking
- Learning difficulties
- Difficulty with fine motor skills
Types of Cerebral Palsy:
- Spastic CP – it causes stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes, making it difficult to walk. Symptoms can affect the entire body or just one side of the body.
- Dyskinetic CP – people with dyskinetic CP have trouble controlling their body movements.
- Hypotonic CP – Hypotonic CP causes diminished muscle tone and overly relaxed muscles.
- Ataxic CP – is characterized by voluntary muscle movements that often appear disorganized, clumsy, or jerky.
- Mixed CP – Some people have a combination of symptoms from the different types of CP. This is called mixed CP.
- Medications – Medications that can lessen muscle tightness might be used to improve functional abilities, treat pain and manage complications related to spasticity or other cerebral palsy symptoms.
- Therapies – A variety of therapies play an important role in treating cerebral palsy
- Surgical Procedures – Surgery may be needed to lessen muscle tightness or correct bone abnormalities caused by spasticity.
When to see a doctor?
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